</tbody> </table> </figure>

Command Example Notes
#!/bin/bash -ex e == stop on error, x == print an execution trace
cat cat filename.txt Prints contents of a file to the screen (shell)
cat /dev/null > myfilename

Or even easier:</br>> myfilename

Deletes the contents of myfilename without having to delete and recreate the actual file
cat file | pbcopy Copy contents of the file to the clipboard
cd cd /usr/local/apache change directory, go to /usr/local/apache/ directory
cd ~ (or just cd) go to your home directory
cd - go to the last directory you were in
cd .. go up a directory
checksum /usr/bin/openssl sha1 /path/to/.app file/ Compares the checksum of a downloaded file
chown Changes file ownership permissions. The set of 2 go in this order from left to right:USER – GROUP
chown root myfile.txt Changes the owner of the file to root
chown root.root myfile.txt Changes the owner and group of the file to root
chmod Changes file access permissions. The set of 3 go in this order from left to right:0 = — No permission
1 = –X Execute only
2 = -W- Write only
3 = -WX Write and execute
4 = R– Read only
5 = R-X Read and execute
6 = RW- Read and write
7 = RWX Read, write and execute
chmod 000 index.html No one can access
chmod g+w index.html Adding write access for the “group”
clear Clears the terminal screen
cmp cmp file1.html file2.html Compares 2 files and writes the result to the standard output.
0 = identical
1 = different
cp cp filename filename.backup copies filename to filename.backup
cp -a /home/burst/new_design/* /home/burst/public_html/ copies all files, retaining permissions form one directory to another.
cp -av * ../newdir Copies all files and directories recurrsively in the current directory INTO newdir
du du -sh ./path Size of directory (including all sub-directories) in a human readable format
du -sh ./path/* Size of a directory, grouped by sub-directories
du -Sh ./path Size of a directory, grouped recursively by sub-directories
echo echo “My text here” > mynewfile Creates a file called ‘mynewfile’ with the contents of ‘My text here’
echo -n > ./myfile Empties an existing file
echo $PATH | tr ‘:’ ‘\n’ Print your environment path values, one for each line
find find -mtime 7 “Finds” files modified in the last 7 days
find . -mtime -1 -ls Finds file modified in the last day
find / -name ‘my.cnf’ Finds a file called “my.cnf” from the root dir
find . -maxdepth 2 -name “myfile*” -exec cp {} temp.txt \; Finds all files from the current location, going to a max depth of 2 where the name is LIKE myfile*. The executes a command (in this case copy), the braces indicate each file/directory found. Then renaming to temp.txt. This is of course a silly example.
Note you need the final \;
git checkout-index -a -f --prefix=/destination/path/
git config --global core.excludesfile ~/.gitignore_global
grep looks for patterns in files
grep root /etc/passwd shows all matches of root in /etc/passwd
grep -c mystring myfile.txt shows how many matching lines have “mystring” in the file
grep -o “mystring” myfile.txt | wc -w shows how many occurrences of “mystring” are in the file (regardless of line)
grep -v root /etc/passwd shows all lines that do not match root
history looks up previously entered commands
!n executes line ‘n’ of the history record
java java -version Provides information on your current java version
kill kill -9 PID Terminate a system process
less filename Shift+f less a file, then hit Shift-f it will tail the file, but you can scroll back up through the file. Good for scanning recent log file entries without having to grep.
ls ls -lSrh $(find . -type f -name ‘*.flv’) find a file type ordering by filesize (smallest first)
ls -R -1 . | wc -l counts the number of files and directories (recursive)
ls *.pdf | wc -l How many files are in a directory
locate sudo /usr/libexec/locate.updatedb Manually updates the database
ln ln -s /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf /etc/httpd.conf Creates links between files and directories. Now you can edit /etc/httpd.conf rather than the original. changes will affect the orginal, however you can delete the link and it will not delete the original.
ls ls list files/directories in a directory, comparable to dir in windows/dos.
ls -al shows all files (including ones that start with a period), directories, and details attributes for each file.
ls -ld */ shows all directories (in long format) from the current position
ls | wc -l Count of files in a directory
ls -lSrh $(find . -type f -name ‘*.flv’) List all files (flv in this case) ordered by size, smallest to largest
mkdir mkdir mydirname Creates new directories
mkdir -p /dir/subdir/subsubdir Creates intermediate directories as required.
mkdir -v Be verbose when creating directories, listing them as they are created.
more like cat, but opens the file one screen at a time rather than all at once
more /etc/userdomains browse through the userdomains file. hit Spaceto go to the next page, q to quit
mv mv oldfilename newfilename Move a file or directory from oldfilename to newfilename
ps short for process status, which is similar to the top command. It’s used to show currently running processes and their PID.A process ID is a unique number that identifies a process, with that you can kill or terminate a running program on your server (see kill command).
ps U username
ps aux shows all system processes
ps aux –forest shows all system processes like the above but organizes in a hierarchy that’s very useful!
pwd pwd “Print Working Directory”, outputs the path to the current folder location. See “/bin/pwd”
pwd -P Prints the absolute working directory when you’re in a symlinked directory
openssl openssl md5 [filename] Verify a file checksum. Replace md5 with “sha1″ if the hash is sha-1
rm rm filename.txt deletes filename.txt, will more than likely ask if you really want to delete it.
rm -rf `find . -name .svn`
rm -f filename.txt deletes filename.txt, will not ask for confirmation before deleting.
rm -rf tmp/ recursively deletes the directory tmp, and all files in it, including subdirectories. BE VERY CAREFULL WITH THIS COMMAND!!
scutil scutil –dns View local DNS configuration (mac)

create a new key, specifying the name (good if you already have default keys):
ssh-keygen -f ~/.ssh/mykey_rsa

Remove a previously generated known host
ssh-keygen -R

See if the ssh-agent is running:
ps aux | grep [s]sh-agent

See which keys are loaded:
ssh-add -l

Remove a key from the ssh agent
ssh-add -d ~/.ssh/mykey_rsa

If your key isn’t there, load it:
ssh-add ~/.ssh/mykey_rsa

Set the correct identity file (if you use more than 1) in your .ssh/config:
Host myhostname
HostName domain.com
PreferredAuthentications publickey
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/mykey_rsa

Also note above to set PreferredAuthentications to only accept publickey.

755 on ~/.ssh
600 on your public and private keys
644 on known_hosts and config

svn svn delete –keep-local .project Removes file from repo but keeps local copy
svn diff -r HEAD Compare local working copy to HEAD
svn add –force ./path Forces svn to add new files in a “path” that is already under version control
svn propedit svn:ignore . Opens a system editor to edit
svn log Provides basic audit of activity in the repository (best to pipe into less etc as it will get quite long)
svn log -v As above except this time you get a full list of files committed by the user
svn log -v -r HEAD:1000 As above except this time you get a full verbose output, from the most recent change (HEAD) to revision number 1000. Again, best to pipe into less etc
svn log -v –limit 5 Limit the log to the last 5 commits
svn log -r {2012-02-02}:{2012-02-03} Show a log between certain dates
svn log –xml -v -r 25311:25230 | xsltproc svn2cl.xsl – > ChangeLog Retrieves the svn log (in xml) between revisions, passes to svn2cl for formatting
svn st -u Shows you what’s changed in the repo, handy before updating your local copy
svn diff -r head myfile.html Shows you a diff between your local copy and HEAD
sudo -l sudo -l What commands can the current user run on this host?
sudo !! sudo !! Executes the last command with “sudo” added
tail like cat, but only reads the end of the file
tail /var/log/messages see the last 20 (by default) lines of /var/log/messages
tail -f /var/log/messages watch the file continuously, while it’s being updated
tail -200 /var/log/messages print the last 200 lines of the file to the screen
tar Creating and Extracting .tar.gz and .tar files
tar -zxvf file.tar.gz Extracts the file
tar -cf archive.tar contents/ Takes everything from contents/ and puts it into archive.tar
gzip -d filename.gz Decompress the file, extract it
zip zip -r archivename.zip filestozip Compresses file(s) to a zip
top shows live system processes in a nice table, memory information, uptime and other useful info. This is excellent for managing your system processes, resources and ensure everything is working fine and your server isn’t bogged down.
top then type Shift + M to sort by memory usage or Shift + P to sort by CPU usage
touch creates an empty file
touch index.html create an empty file called index.html in the current directory
unzip unzip file.zip Extracting .zip files shell command
wc wc -l filename.txt tells how many lines are in filename.txt
wget wget –recursive –no-clobber –page-requisites –html-extension –convert-links –restrict-file-names=windows –domains intranet.bosw2k.com http://intranet.bosw2k.com/ scrapes an entire site, doesn’t follow external links
wget -O – www.mysite.com Retrieves a single page via GET
wget –post-data ‘param1=value’ -O – www.mysite.com Retrieves a single page via POST and sends parameters
wget –server-response –spider http://www.mysite.com/ Retrieves the HTTP headers only

Apache commands

httpd httpd -v Outputs the build date and version of the Apache server.
httpd -l Lists compiled in Apache modules
httpd status Only works if mod_status is enabled and shows a page of active connections
httpd sudo apachectl graceful If Apache is not already running it will be started. If it is already running then it will reload with the new changes but will not abort active connections, meaning that anyone who is in the middle of downloading something will continue to be able to download it.
sudo apachectl configtest Check your config syntax
apachectl -M what static and shared modules are loaded
apachectl -l what compiled in modules are installed

MySQL commands

mysqladmin mysqladmin processlist Shows active mysql connections and queries
mysqladmin -uroot -p shutdown Shut down the mysql service
mysqladmin -uroot -p variables Shows global vars
mysqladmin create databasenamehere Creates a mysql database
mysql mysql -uroot -p Connects to mysql in the terminal
mysql –print-defaults mysql would have been started with the following arguments:</p>
--port=3306 --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock --default-character-set=utf8
--no-auto-rehash --default-character-set=utf8
mysql> show databases; Shows all databases on the server (once connected)
mysql> use [database]; Connects you to a particular database
mysql> show tables; Displays all tables once you have connected to a database
mysql> show table status; Displays table metadata including sizes
mysql> show variables like “%character%”;
show variables like “%collation%”;
Shows the server collation and characterset, e.g.
| Variable_name | Value |
| character_set_client | utf8 |
| character_set_connection | utf8 |
| character_set_database | utf8 |
| character_set_filesystem | binary |
| character_set_results | utf8 |
| character_set_server | utf8 |
| character_set_system | utf8 |
| character_sets_dir | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
| Variable_name | Value |
| collation_connection | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_database | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_server | utf8_general_ci |
mysql> show create table tablename;Shows create statement with keys and indexes
mysql> show variables like “character_set_database”; Shows characterset of a specific database+————————+——-+
| Variable_name | Value |
| character_set_database | utf8 |
mysql> show full columns from vocab_scot; +——-+————–+—————–+——+—–+———+—————-+———————————+———+
| Field | Type | Collation | Null | Key | Default | Extra | Privileges | Comment |
| id | int(11) | NULL | NO | PRI | NULL | auto_increment | select,insert,update,references | |
| term | varchar(200) | utf8_general_ci | NO | UNI | NULL | | select,insert,update,references | |
| uri | varchar(200) | utf8_general_ci | NO | | NULL | | select,insert,update,references | |
mysqldump mysqldump -hdb.example.com -uusername -p mydbname | gzip > mydbname.sql.gz Back’s up a database and compresses to a .gz file
mysqldump –no-data -h db.example.com -u username -p mydbname > myschema.sql Generates schema, no data
mysqldump -h -u myusername -p –single-transaction mydatabase | gzip > mydatabase.sql.gz Back’s up a database without locking tables (innoDB only)
mysqldump -h -u myusername -p –lock-tables=false mydatabase | gzip > mydatabase.sql.gz Back’s up a database without locking tables (MyISAM only)
mysqldump –compatible=ansi -h127.0.0.1 -umyuser -p mydatabase | gzip > mydatabase.sql.gz Back’s up a database with ansi compatibility, meaning syntax will hopefully be more consistent and less likely to barf
mysqldump -umsharman -p –ignore-table=mydatabase.tablename mydatabase | gzip > mydatabase.sql.gz Dumps a database ignoring a specific table
gunzip gunzip < [mydbname.sql.gz] | mysql -u[uname] -p[pass] mydbname Restores a database
mysql -uroot dbname < <(cat *sql) Restores a database if you have an sql file per table
cat < mydb.sql | mysql -uroot dbname Runs sql file against a database
To set the default to UTF-8, you want to add the following to my.cnf</p>

default-character-set = utf8
collation-server = utf8_unicode_ci
init-connect=’SET NAMES utf8′
character-set-server = utf8</td> </tr>


Nano commands

ctrl + space or ctrl + shift + alt Moves forward 1 word
ctrl + j justifies the current paragraph
ctrl + a moves to start of line
ctrl + o saves file to disk
ctrl + e moves to end of line
ctrl + v moves down a screen
ctrl + y moves up a screen
ctrl + c shows where cursor is (handy if you’ve moved down pages etc)
ctrl + k deletes current line
ctrl + shift + _ (or ctrl + _) go to line
ctrl + \ find and replace
ctrl + g help
ctrl + w (or F6) search
ctrl + ^ “marks” a spot for selecting text (to copy etc) up to where you move your cursor. If you mess up, hit ctrl + ^ again to “unmark” your selection
ctrl + k Cutting text (selected with ctrl + ^)
ctrl + u Pastes text cut with ctrl + k